IB Geography higher level notes

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Geo HL Extension Compilation

Measuring Global Interactions

Define Globalisation
The growing interdependence of countries worldwide through the increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services and of international capital flows, and through the more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology

Global participation
Describe and evaluate globalization indices: KOF index, as a measure of global interaction. Describe how the globalization index may be represented spatially.

KOF Index
Measures economic (trade flows), social and political globalization Data collected systematically and continuously over time (available on a yearly basis) by Swiss Federal Institute of Technology 207 countries

Pros
Overall index of globalization from sub-indices of economic, social and political globalisation Each sub-index is also made up of different indices
Economic
Actual economic flows
Restrictions
Social
Cultural proximity (hard to measure)
Personal contact
Information Flows
Tries to measure cultural proximity, acknowledges globalization is also a cultural phenomenon In economic  looks at restrictions to globalization, not just that which enables (e.g. hidden import barriers) Cons

Favours small countries in the economic variable as they are more dependent on international trade (disregards large countries’ contribution to globalization) E.g. 8 of top 10 countries have small land areas; 7 have less than 8 million people Ireland and Denmark have limited domestic markets; Singapore and Netherlands lack natural resources etc. Cultural proximity is hard to measure

International letters may actually favour less globalized countries, as most developed and globalized countries have switched to using electronic means Embassies, UN missions  favour large countries as they have resources to send manpower, also because large countries are more likely to have embassies from elsewhere whereas small regions are grouped together Spatial distribution

8 of top 10 countries have small land areas
First countries of significant population size is France in 16th position Significant variations in columns: Singapore 14th overall but 1st for economic globalization Lowest levels of gloablisation are in Africa, Middle East, South and Southeast Asia and Latin America (except Chile and Argentina) Global core and periphery

Discuss the spatial pattern of global interactions through the mapping of core areas at the focus of interaction (network hubs/nodes), the peripheries and areas relatively unaffected by these interactions.

Translation: describe where the interaction is, where most of it occurs, and where most of it doesn’t and explain it.

Core and periphery The concept of a developed core surrounded by an undeveloped periphery. The concept can be applied at various scales. Network – moves people, goods and ideas around, e.g. transport, communications Node on the network = point on the network

Hub = very connected point on the network
Do no write about developed and developing/ North-South divide  too simplistic USE BRICs, NESTs, Asian tigers

Accepted version of world’s interactions: tripartite system Core: USA, UK, Germany (Richest and where most economic interactions take place) Semi-periphery – location of world’s newly industrialised countries (e.g. China, India, BRICs, Asian Tigers) Periphery – Bangladesh, Kenya, Mali etc.

World System Theory
Capitalism has arisen from a small number of isolated and independent regions that formed relationships (the core), thus creating an outside periphery of regions that are not in the core. In between the two are the semi-periphery regions (either core areas in decline or periphery regions attempting to improve their economic situation). There is also the additional type of region classified as “external areas” that largely remain outside of the world market economy eg. Russia.

Dependency theory
The theory that resources flow from...
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