Marketing Notes

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ADM 2320 Exam
Chapter 9
Dove Example
Brand extension from soap bar to multiple personal care areas Brand image always associated with moisture / mildness
Brand promise: mildness and moisturization
Complexity of Products

What Makes a Brand?

Value of Branding for the Customer and the Marketer

Branding Overview

Brand equity is an important concept that can both help and hinder. For example, customers dislike some brands because of the firm’s actions or their negative perceptions. Nike has been the target of many labour activists, which causes some consumers to refuse to purchase or wear Nike products. Mattel’s brand equity was hurt when it recalled over 19 million toys because of lethal magnets and lead paint. Brand Loyalty

1. Consumers are often less sensitive to price
2. Marketing costs are much lower
3. Firm insulated from the competition
Brand Ownership

Brand Ownership

Brand Name Strategies

Branding exists on multiple levels, and firms choose strategically how to brand their products. The names they assign their products reflect this strategic choice. Marriott gives its individual brands unique names, all tied together by the phrase “by Marriott,” like Fairfield Inns by Marriott. Choosing a Brand Name: Desirable Qualities

Suggest benefits and qualities
Easy to pronounce recognize & remember
Capable of registration & legal protection
Translated easily
Brand Extension
Benefits of brand extension
Well established name
Brand known for high quality
Lower marketing costs
Synergy among products
Boost sales of the core brand

Brand Dilution


Although often overlooked as a marketing tool, packaging helps determine the success of a product. The chapter covers many new packaging innovations including FlexCan, Daily Gloss, smart lids, Labatt blue, aseptic drink bottles, and snack and seal as seen in the ad above. In some instances, such as Coca-Cola or Aunt Jemima Maple Syrup, the package has become synonymous with the brand. Even small firms benefit from good packaging and labeling. Quaker Coffee’s packaging conveys its value proposition to the marketplace. Its labels communicate roast qualities and bakery labels state “baked fresh.” Sales increased 400% as a result of the redesigned packaging. Product Labeling

Label information is determined by regulations, and labeling rules vary from country to country. Certain terms convey specific meanings, such as “natural,” “organic,” “made in Canada,” and products must meet specific tests before placing such terms on their label. Chapter 10

The Service Product Continuum

Services Marketing Differs from Product Marketing

Requires using cues to aid customers
Atmosphere is important to convey value
Images are used to convey benefit of value
Consumers use cues to judge the service quality of dentists, including the quality of the furnishings, whether magazines are current, and diplomas on the wall. Inseparable Production and Consumption

Production and consumption are simultaneous
Little opportunity to test a service before use
Lower risk by offering guarantees or warranties
When staying at a hotel, you can’t test it out before you stay. Some hotels offer satisfaction guarantees to lower risk. Inconsistent
Adding Convenience through self-Checkout Machines
Increasing use of self-checkout machines
Consumers enjoy faster checkout
Retailers save on labour and training costs
In many industries, consumers have taken roles in the final production process; ATMs, self-service gas stations, and self-service restaurants all shift labour to the consumer, and yet many consumers consider these technologies actually improve customer service. Technology can reduce inconsistency of service delivery. Inventory

Each of the pictured services are perishable, because as soon as the plane/ship departs, the date ends, or the meal is served, there is no...
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