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20

JUNE 2005
Strengthening Democracy and Democratic Institutions in Pakistan

UNDERSTANDING LABOUR ISSUES IN PAKISTAN

20

JUNE 2005
Strengthening Democracy and Democratic Institutions in Pakistan

UNDERSTANDING LABOUR ISSUES IN PAKISTAN

Pakistan Institute of Legislative Development A n d Tr a n s p a r e n c y

PILDAT is an independent, non-partisan and not-for-profit indigenous research and training institution with the mission to strengthen democracy and democratic institutions in Pakistan. PILDAT has been actively engaged with building the capabilities of elected Legislators towards a better discharge of their functions of Legislation, Representation and Oversight. PILDAT regularly conducts training/briefing workshops and sessions for Legislators belonging to the National and Provincial Assemblies as well as the Senate. As a non-partisan political research institution, PILDAT regularly prepares well-researched briefing/background papers and Case Studies for Pakistani Parliamentarians, Parliamentary Staff and politicians on a wide range of issues. PILDAT is a registered non-profit entity under the Societies Registration Act XXI of 1860, Pakistan. ©Pakistan Institute of Legislative Development And Transparency - PILDAT

All rights reserved. Any part of this publication may be reproduced or translated by duly acknowledging the source. This book is provided gratis or sold, subject to the condition that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, re-sold, hired out or otherwise circulated without the publisher's prior consent in any form of binding or cover.

First Published: June 2005 ISBN: 969-558-008-4 Typeset in Swis721 Cn BT Printed by: Son Printers, Lahore

Published by

Pakistan Institute of Legislative Development A n d Tr a n s p a r e n c y

Pakistan Institute of Legislative Development And Transparency House No. 7, 9th Avenue, F-8/1, Islamabad, Pakistan Tel: (+92-51) 111-123-345; Fax: (+92-51) 226-3078 E-mail: info@pildat.org; URL: www.pildat.org

UNDERSTANDING LABOUR ISSUES IN PAKISTAN

CONTENTS
Foreword Profile of the Author 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Overview Labour in the Informal Economy IRO: Issues and Controversies Current Labour Policy of Pakistan State of Trade Unionism in Pakistan Impact of Globalization on Labour in Pakistan State Institutions Women in Labour Force and Gender Discrimination Potential Areas of Legislation to Address the Issues of Labour in Pakistan The Way Ahead 09 10 11 12 12 12 13 15 16 17

Boxes & Tables Box 1: Box 2: Box 3: Box 4: Box 5: Box 6: Table 1: Table 2: Table 3: Table 4: Table 5: Table 6: Labour Rights in the Constitution ILO Core Labour Conventions on Labour Rights Informal Sector IRO 1969 and 2002: Exclusions Workers Employers Bilateral Council of Pakistan (WEBCOP) Gender Equality in the Constitution Civilian Labour Force in Pakistan Registered Trade Unions with Membership Average Trends in Unemployment Pakistan: Labour Force Participation Rate Malaysia: Labour Force Participation Rate Bangladesh: Labour Force Participation Rate 09 10 10 11 15 15 09 13 13 16 16 16 19

End Notes

UNDERSTANDING LABOUR ISSUES IN PAKISTAN

G

eneral labour conditions in Pakistan leave much to be desired. The country's existing labour code is beset with discrepancies. Furthermore, since Pakistan's economy is mainly dominated by the informal sector, a vast majority of workers remain outside the ambit of labour laws and social protection. Only 2.4 per cent of the labour force is unionized and has access to collective bargaining for their wages and working conditions. The objective of this briefing paper is to contribute to the prevalent debate on labour reforms in Pakistan. It is important to understand the diverse viewpoints on the subject and strive for a consensus based solution. PILDAT hopes that this paper will provide an impetus for public representatives to play a more proactive role in the debate on labour reforms as well as in...
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