actions to take in response to evidence or concerns that a child or young person has been abused, harmed (including self-harm) or bullied, or may be at risk of harm, abuse or bullying.

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Terms of reference – This report has been asked for by Veronica Cozens, class tutor. The report asks to:

3.1Define the term ‘safeguarding’ children and identify the characteristics of different types of abuse. 3.3Describe the actions to take in response to evidence or concerns that a child or young person has been abused, harmed (including self-harm) or bullied, or may be at risk of harm, abuse or bullying.

I have obtained the information from the following sources:
Child Protection and Safeguarding Awareness Training For Governors. (handouts) Inclusion Officer and Safeguarding Children Training Officer. Books used: Supporting Teaching & Learning in schools Level 2 L Burnham. Teaching Assistants Handbook Level 2 Teena Kamen.

The internet: My own experience in the setting

The term ‘safeguarding’ means ‘The process of protecting children from abuse or neglect, preventing impairment of their health and development, and ensuring they are growing up in circumstances consistent with the provision of safe and effective care that enables children to have optimum life chances and enter adulthood successfully.’ Abuse and neglect are forms of maltreatment of a child. Somebody may abuse or neglect a child either directly by inflicting harm, or indirectly, by failing to act to prevent harm. Children may be abused in a family or in an institutional or community setting; by those known to them; or, more rarely, by a stranger. They may be abused by an adult or adults, or another child or children. There are four types of child abuse. They are defined in the UK Government guidance ‘Working Together to Safeguard Children’ 2010. Although bullying is not defined as abuse within Safeguarding 2010 there is evidence that it is abusive and can consist in at least one, if not all of the types of abuse. Emotional abuse, Physical abuse, sexual abuse and neglect. Emotional abuse is the persistent emotional maltreatment of a child that causes persistent adverse effects on their emotional development. This is also termed as psychological abuse which combines emotional abuse and emotional neglect (Glaser, 2011). There can be two elements involved in emotional abuse, active and passive. Active abuse is a premeditated act, an individual scares, demeans or verbally abuses another. This includes terrorising, rejecting, exploiting or corrupting. Passive emotional abuse consists of depriving a child of the love or care needed to lead a happy healthy life. This can be as a result of the lack of knowledge, understanding or care that a parent or carer has about the child’s needs. It may involve seeing or hearing the ill-treatment of another. Emotional abuse can also involve serious bullying, including cyberbullying, causing children frequently to feel frightened or in danger. Emotional abuse can be difficult to measure, as there are often no physical signs. There may be a developmental delay due to a failure to thrive and grow, although this will usually only be evident if the child puts on weight in other circumstances, for example when hospitalised or away from their parents’ care. However children who appear well-cared for may nevertheless be emotionally abused. Some signs that maybe visible are: neurotic behaviour e.g. sulking, hair twisting, rocking, being unable to play, fear of making mistakes, sudden speech disorders, self-harm, fear of parent being approached regarding their behaviour. They can also be excessively withdrawn. A child may show extremes in behaviour such as, extremely demanding or compliant, extremely passive or aggressive and the child doesn’t seem to be attached to the parent or caregiver. Physical abuse involves physical harm or injury to the child. This maybe as a result of a deliberate attempt to hurt the child or severely discipline. The signs of physical abuse can be unexplained bruising, marks or injuries on any part of the body,...
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