An Evaluation of Nescafe's Advertising

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Advertising campaign evaluation is not very easy at the best of times. Whilst it would be nice to say that "X" sales had resulted from "Y" advertising inputs, too many intervening factors make the simple tie-up difficult. Evaluation takes place at two levels - the effectiveness of the message and the effectiveness of the media. Measures include message recall tests, diary completion, and brand recall. When organizations advertise across international boundaries a number of important factors have to be taken into consideration. Whilst the process is ostensibly straightforward, (that is someone (seller) says something (message) to someone (buyer) through a medium) the process is compounded by certain factors. These are illustrated in the below figure.

These mitigating factors can be called "noise" and have an effect on the decision to "extend", "adapt" or "create" new messages. Language differences may mean that straight translation is not enough when it comes to message design. Advertising may also play different roles within developed, between developed and underdeveloped and within underdeveloped countries. In developing countries "education" and "information" may be paramount objectives. In developed countries, the objectives may be more persuasive. Cultural differences may account for the greatest challenge. However, many, notably Elinder (1961)1 challenged the need to adapt messages and images, as he argued that consumer differences between countries are diminishing. Changes may be needed only in translation. However, this is only one point of view, as there is no doubt that cultural differences do exist across the world. For example, it would be quite unacceptable to have swimsuited ladies advertising sun care products in Moslem countries. Three major difficulties occur in attempting to communicate internationally: the message may not get through to the intended recipient, due to a lack of media knowledge; the message may get through but not be...
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