Aim
We can find two failure points in members exposed to axial compressive forces, also called struts. The first one is squashing of the member, which will only happened if a member is “Stocky”. The second, and most common one, is buckling of the member. This failure happens without much warning, and therefore it is important for engineers to be able to calculate what load on structural element will cause buckling. In this experiment, we will observe the failure mode of buckling, by loading five slender aluminium elements in compression. Procedure

In this experiment, we used a Digital Force Display (DFD), to observe the failure mode of buckling, of five slender aluminium elements. We used de DFD to put load on the elements in compression, starting with the longest one, and kept putting on load until there were no further increase in the load. We repeated this for each of the five slender aluminium elements four times. Result

STRUT NUMBER
LENGTH (mm)
BUCKLING LOAD
(N)
1 2 3 4
AVERAGE
BUCKLING LOAD (N)
1
520
-35
-40
-36
-40
-37.75
2
470
-40
-56
-40
-52
-47
3
420
-53
-64
-52
-64
-58.25
4
370
-75
-76
-75
-77
-75.75
5
320
-99
-90
-98
-90
-94.25
Table 1 - The result of the experiment

Table 2 – Graph of buckling load vs. 1/L2
By finding the gradient of the graph, we can calculate π2*E*I : Where I = b3d/12 = (23*20)/12 = 13.33 mm4
We chose two points on the line and get:
1. x = 0.000004 and y = 42.0598
2. x = 0.000008 and y = 79.51968 then
G = π2*E*I y2-y1/x2-x1 = π2*E*(b3d/12)
(42.1-79.52) / (4.0E-6 – 8.0E-6) = π2*E*13.33
E = 65482.29 N/mm2 E = 65.5 GPa

Discussion
We know that the actual Young’s modulus of Aluminium is 69GPa, and we can see that we got a slightly different answer, 65.5GPa, when calculating it from the experiment results. We get an error of 5.1%, which is small in this case. This difference can...

...Experiment 1 : StrutBuckling
Introduction:
Objective:
• To determine the buckling load for a pinned ended strut.
Theory:
• The critical buckling load, Pcr, for a pinned ended strut is given by; Pcr = п² EI / (L²) [pic]
Apparatus:
1. Vernier Caliper
2. Specimen
3. Steel Ruler
4. Allen Keys
5. Digital indicator
[pic]
Procedure:
1. Switch on the digital indictor and warm it up for at least 10 minutes.
2. Choose a specimen and measure its length. The width and thickness of the beam is 3 mm and 25 mm respectively.
3. Calculate the theoretical buckling load for a strut with pinned end condition. This is to ensure that the load applied to the strut does not exceed the buckling load.
4. Placed the grooved support into the slot of the attachment for the end conditions and tightened the side screws. Refer appendix for proper installation of the support.
5. Move the top platen upwards or downwards to bring the distance between the two supports closer to the length of the strut.
6. Press the tare button on the digital indicator to set the reading to zero.
7. Place the specimen in the groove of the top support.
8. While holding the specimen, adjust the jack so that the lower end of the specimen just rest in the groove of the bottom support. (If the distance between the two supports is...

...Task 1
Foundry Work
Sand casting involves many sequences and there are as follows:
- Design and manufacturing the casting. When doing this all vertical edges must be tapered as to make it easier to lift the pattern out of the mould.
- Contraction allowances have to be added to the pattern because it shrinks in size in all dimensions. In this case it’s Aluminium, which has a contraction allowance of 1.3%.
- Machining allowance: Castings are usually machined so that they fit perfectly with mating components. So therefore extra material should be added for machining. This can range from 1 - 35mm.
- The pattern should be thick enough to avoid misrun defects (+2mm thick)
- Abrupt changes in the pattern should be avoided as it can cause shrinkage defects. Sharp corners should be replaced with fillets to reduce stress concentrations also.
- Put a rapping and drawing hole in the pattern. A spike is placed in the rapping hole and gently struck; this loosens the sand enough so that it can be removed with a bolt, which is screwed into the drawing hole.
- Treating the molten metal: Remove dross using cleansing flux, Measure the temperature using an Immersion Pyrometer (Aluminium 750°C) Bubble gas into it to remove hydrogen, Check chemical composition, Add sodium; this modifies the shape of the grain structure to improve ductility.
- Pour the molten metal into the mould.
- Once cooled, remove casting from the mould and cut off the excess metal using a band saw...

...1
SAYI : 1
SAYFA : 39-43
SCIENCES
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE PHENOMENON OF
BUCKLING FOR STEEL AND ALUMINIUM STRUTS
Durmuş TÜRKMEN
University of Pamukkale, Engineering Faculty, Denizli -TURKEY
ABSTRACT
The experiment was carried out to investigate the phenomenon of buckling using simple struts. These results were then
compared with the theoretical predictions. Three steel struts of different length were used in the experiment; one of
them had fix/pinned-end all the others had pin/pin-end joint. The applied load was placed at different eccentricities for
each strut. Six aluminium pin-end struts of varying length were also tested. The measured critical load for each strut
was compared against the corresponding Euler and Southwell predictions. For a steel strut, it would be expected that
buckling would be symmetrical for left and right eccentricities. However, this was not the case due to imperfections in
the struts. The struts buckled with half sine-wave and if one end of the strut was fixed the effective length was reduced
and the critical load was increased. In the case of the aluminium struts, due to plastic behaviour in the deformation it
was much harder to find the critical load. For steel struts both Euler and Southwell predictions...

...Engineering, 3rd Year.
The following is a very good report I have used as a sample to help me with my Buckling Report. This is something that exists freely online, I am not claiming this as my own work, neither am I getting this information fraudulently from somewhere else. Original link for this is http://enpub.fulton.asu.edu/imtl/HTML/Manuals/MC108_Buckling_Column.htm
I have removed all names from this and the document uploaded, for privacy purposes. Every such detail can be found on the link provided.
After grading I shall try and post my work as well, but I consider this to be a better example.
Integrated Mechanical Testing Laboratory
BUCKLING OF A COLUMN
Objective
The primary purpose of this experiment is to verify the critical load for buckling, relationship among the bending-moment and deflections, for different end conditions when a rectangular beam is subjected to axial loading.
Theory
A column is a member subjected to axial compressive forces. When a column is concentrically loaded, it is expected to reach its yield stress. But usually prior to yielding, when the force in the column reaches a certain value, it buckles. This force is known as the buckling load or the critical load. The end conditions of a column significantly influence the buckled shape, which can be used to compute the buckling load.
For a prismatic elastic member, the buckling load is...

...Tutorial: Building a Web Application with Struts
This tutorial describes how OTN developers built a Web application for shop owners and customers of the Virtual Shopping Mall (VSM) sample application. OTN developers used Oracle9i JDeveloper and the Jakarta Project's Struts framework to build the application.
Contents
1. Concepts 2. Design 3. Required Software 4. Setup 5. Implementation 6. Resources 7. Feedback
Concepts
The Jakarta Project'sStruts framework, version 1.1b2, from Apache Software Organization is an open source framework for building web applications that integrate with standard technologies, such as Java Servlets, JavaBeans, and JavaServer Pages. Struts offers many benefits to the web application developer, including Model 2 implementation of Model-View-Controller (MVC) design patterns in JSP web applications. The MVC Model 2 paradigm applied to web applications lets you separate display code (for example, HTML and tag libraries) from flow control logic (action classes). Following is a brief overview of the MVC Model 2 design pattern. For complete information about how Struts implements the MVC design patterns, see the Introduction to the Struts User's Guide on the Jakarta Project's Web site: http://jakarta.apache.org/struts/userGuide/index.html.
q
The Model portion of an MVC-based system typically comprises JavaBean classes that define the...

...develop an appreciation of phenomenon of buckling and understand the use of buckling formulas in the analysis and design of structures.Scenario In structural engineering, structural analysis and design is required to analyse construction designs and appraise statically determinate structures. You have to be able to design common structural elements to the appropriate British Standard, code of practice or European Code of Practice. The following series of tasks are set to test your knowledge and understanding of work with real-life examples and develop the skills needed to produce effective and economic designs. Task 3 (LO 3 3.1) determine the axial load carrying capacity of perfectly elastic columns. A hollow circular steel column (E205 kN/mm2) is simply supported over a length of 6m. The inner and outer diameters of the cross section are 30mm and 40mm, respectively. Determine the critical buckling load the axial stress at the critical buckling load if roller supports are added at the midpoint, what would be the new critical buckling load A 5m long column is constructed from a steel (E210GPa) sheet metal of thickness 15mm. The sheet metal is bent to form a hollow square cross section with outer dimension of 120mmx120mm. The ends of the column are fixed. Determine the critical buckling load the axial stress at the critical buckling load. For M3, you have to present and...

...Types of Buckling
Engineering is one discipline that is based on several different phenomenon and concepts. Each concept in engineering is as important as other and they all work together to give rise to some new techniques. One phenomenon that is extremely beneficial and widely used in engineering and science is buckling. Buckling is nothing but a phenomenon of mathematical instability, which leads to a special failure mode. When a system in equilibrium is subjected to additional load, it buckles down and gets deformed. This deformation is what is known as buckling. There are several different types of buckling that can take place in objects and those are described as below.
Flexural buckling is a special form of buckling that takes place in a special compression member facing a deflection because of the bending of flexure. It occurs mostly in a straight column when the stable equilibrium gets distorted at the critical load. The buckling is shown to occur mainly at the axis and demonstrates significantly small radius of gyration. There are different types of flexural buckling that can take place in objects and different equations can be employed for determining the load and the extent of buckling caused due to the same.
Lateral buckling is also commonly observed in objects when the deflection goes out of the plane in...