Bullying and Self-esteem

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Chapter I
INTRODUCTION
An act of horseplay can be meant as a playful gesture but viewed as an act of aggression from an outside observer. Bullying is a form of aggression intended to offend, harm, or embarrass the victim. “Bullying is commonly regarded as an aspect of aggression” (Roland and Idsoe, 2001). Masterson (1997) also said that bullying is regarded as a form of aggression in which a person repeatedly harasses another person physically and/or psychologically. Self-esteem is often seen as a personality trait, which means that it tends to be stable and enduring. Bullying can give a big impact on the student's self-esteem. Some people feel good while teasing anybody and the people who have to face this problem gets afraid of going to the place where they encounter this issue. Individuals’ sense of their own self-worth is often bound up in the quality of their relationships with others so that signs of rejection can threaten self-esteem (Leary & Baumeister, 2000). According to Taylor, Peplau and Sears (2006), people with high-self-esteem have a clear sense of their own personal qualities. They think well of themselves, set appropriate goals, use feedback in a self-enhancing manner, their positive experiences and cope successfully with difficult situations. People with low self-esteem also tend to have more adverse emotional and behavioral reactions to criticism. These individuals are less likely to generate positive feedback for themselves, are more concerned about their social impact on other people and are more vulnerable to depression or rumination when they encounter setbacks or stress (Tayloretal, 2006). From the rapidly growing literature on bullying, it is increasingly recognized that peer relationship problems as manifested in being bullied are associated with low self-esteem. However, the literature on self-esteem in relation to children who bully others is controversial. This study aims to elucidate further our understanding of the relationship between self-esteem and bullying in students. This will be conducted through the use of questionnaires that will identify the student's level of self-esteem who experienced bullying. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

According to some findings, the existence of bullying in schools has become a worldwide phenomenon and a problem that can create negative impacts for the general school atmosphere and for the rights of students to learn in a safe environment without fear. Bullying can also have negative lifelong consequences both for students who bully and for their victims. Although formal research as well as intervention programs to prevent bullying have been taking place for decades in some developed countries, the problems associated with bullying have been also discussed all over the world wherever formal schooling environments exist. Several general types of bullying have been identified in the literature (e.g., Donahue, 2004; Owlets, 1993). Among these are (a) Direct Bullying: Behaviors such as teasing, taunting, threatening, hitting, and stealing that are initiated by one of more bullies against a victim; (b) Verbal Bullying: Taunting, teasing, name calling, spreading rumors; (c) Physical Bullying: Hitting, kicking, destroying property, enlisting a friend to assault someone for you; (d) Verbal (Non-physical) Bullying: Threatening or obscene gestures, excluding others from a group, manipulating friendships, sending threatening E-mail; (e) Sexual Harassment: A form of bullying in which the intent is to demean, embarrass, humiliate, or control another person on the basis of gender or sexual orientation.

Bullying is present in most schools in the country and has been reported to impact (to some extent) as many as 70% of students (Canter, 2005). Students of all ages and grade levels may experience the problems that bullying creates (Acre, 2001; Roberts, 1988). It is all too often symptomatic of the aggressive way in which young people interact with each other in our...
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