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Bullying: Effects and Intervention

Liz Ann Pittman
Capstone Seminar Project
Brenda Hargrove
Wesleyan College

Table of Contents

Abstract3
Introduction3
- Statement of the Problem4
-Review of Related Literature4-12
- Statement of the Hypothesis12

Method
-Participants (N)12-13
-Instrument(s)13
-Experimental Design 13-15 Procedure16- 17 Results17-24
Discussion24-25
Implications26
References27-29
Appendix (ces)
Appendix A 30
Appendix B 31
Appendix C and D32-34
Appendix E 34-36
Appendix F37

Abstract

The purpose of this action research project is to identify whether conducting read aloud about character education and implementing role playing will improve classroom environment and reduce bullying occurrences. This action research project will includes one group of six, first grade students from a middle school. The intervention will be conducted at less three times a week, for 50 minutes over a three week period during late morning. The students that will be participants will be given pre and post survey. The students that will be participants will have to believe that bullying is a problem at the middle school, and that bullying has decreased, to make sure that the intervention will go successful.

Introduction:
Almost everybody can tell a story or two about having been victimized by a bully in school. In addition, bullying should not be treated as something that is common for students to experience as they get older, and as a rite of passage. It should be addressed as something that can limit academic learning and cause irreversible psychological damage (Hillsberg & Spak, 2006).

Bullying occurs at places and times when adult supervision and surveillance is minimal like in hallways and playgrounds (Graham, 2010, p.66).
There are several types of bullying which occur in schools daily. Physical bullies often resort to violence against their victims by either hitting, kicking, or shoving others. Verbal bullies use words to harm others through name-calling, insulting, and harsh teasing. Relational bullies focus on excluding a person from their peer group and usually do so by spreading rumors about that person. Finally, reactive bullies are individuals who are often both bully and victim, typically victim first, and who respond to being victimized with bullying behavior (Milsom & Gallo, 2006; Beran & Shapiro, 2005). Statement of the Problem

Bullying is a serious social problem affecting many schools around the world. However it is not until the 1970s has it become the object of systematic research. As a result of bullying, victimized children tend to suffer from depression and anxiety, as well as want to keep to themselves. Another serious effect that bullying has is interrupting classroom environment, and creating an uncomfortable and hostile environment where students cannot focus on their learning. Furthermore, their academic performance is hindered as well (Barone 1997; Farrington,1993; Olweus 1995; Siris & Osterman 2004; Guerra et al. 2011; Smith et al., 2005; Williams & Kennedy, 2012).

Review of Literature
Dan Olweus (1995) defines bullying as an incident where “a student is exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more students” (p. 197). Olweus extended the definition used by P. Heinemann in 1973. For instance, Smith, Cowie, Olafsson, and Liefooghe (2002) stated that Heinemann was one of the first to write on bullying, and used the Norwegian term “mobbning, referring to group violence against a deviant individual that occurs suddenly and...
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