differential calculus

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History of Differential Calculus

Universidad Iberoamericana
September 20, 2013

Ever since men felt the need to count, the history of calculus begins, which together with Mathematics is one of the oldest and most useful science. Since men felt that need for counting objects, this need led to the creation of systems that allowed them to maintain control of their properties. They initially did it with the use of fingers, legs, or stones. But as humans continued developing intellectually, they achieved to implement systems or more advanced forms that allowed them to solve problems. The Egyptians were the first civilization to develop mathematical knowledge. They devised numeral systems through hieroglyphs, representing the numbers 1, 10 and 100 through sticks and human figures. This system evolved into what we know today as the Roman system. Other important civilizations in history, such as the Babylonians, created other numeral systems, where the solution to the problem of counting the objects was solved with the implementation of a sexagesimal method. Civilizations as ancient China and ancient India used a hieroglyph decimal system, with the characteristic that these implemented the number zero. The progress achieved ever since each culture implemented their numeral system are still used today. The algebraic advance of the Egyptians resulted in the resolution to significant equations. The correct implementation of the calculus arithmetic rule, by the Indians, increased mathematical knowledge, and led to the creation of irrational numbers. In ancient Mesopotamia, we introduce the concept of reciprocal, plus solutions to different logarithmic problems, progress was such that it created algorithms for calculating sums of progressions. In geometry, it is believed that they knew the Pythagorean Theorem, though not as a general theorem. With no doubt, China played a big role in mathematical progress. However, it was in Greece, where...
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