Fauna in Asia

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Fauna of Asia is all the animals living in Asia and its surrounding seas and islands. Since there is no natural biogeographic boundary in the west between Europe and Asia, the term "fauna of Asia" is somewhat elusive. Asia is the eastern part of the Palearctic ecozone (which in turn is part of the Holarctic), and its South-Eastern part belongs to the Indomalaya ecozone (previously called the Oriental region). Asia shows a notable diversity of habitats, with significant variations in rainfall, altitude, topography, temperature and geological history, which is reflected in its richness of animal life. Contents

1 Origins of Asian Fauna
2 Zoogeographic regions
2.1 European-Siberian region
2.2 Mediterranean Basin
2.3 Middle-East deserts
2.4 Western and Central Asia
2.5 East Asia
2.6 Indian Subcontinent
2.7 Indochina
2.8 Sunda shelf and the Philippines
2.9 Freshwater
2.10 Marine fauna
3 Reptiles
4 Birds
5 Mammals
6 Human impact
7 See also
8 References
Origins of Asian Fauna[edit source | editbeta]

The formation of the Asian fauna began in the Mesozoic with the splitting of Laurasian supercontinent. Asia blends elements from the both ancient supercontinents of Laurasia and Gondwana. Gondwanian elements were introduced from Africa and by India, which detached from Gondwana approximately 90 MYA, carrying its Gondwana-derived flora and fauna northward. Glaciation during the most recent ice age and the immigration of man affected the distribution of Asian fauna (see also Sahara pump theory). Eurasia and North America were many times connected by the Bering land bridge, and have very similar mammal and bird faunas, with many Eurasian species having moved into North America, and fewer North American species having moved into Eurasia (many zoologists consider the Palearctic and Nearctic to be a single Holarctic ecozone).[1] See also List of extinct animals of Asia. Zoogeographic regions[edit source | editbeta]

Satellite view of Asia.
European-Siberian region[edit source | editbeta]
The boreal and temperate European-Siberian region is the Palearctic's largest region, which transitions from tundra in the northern reaches of Russia and Scandinavia to the vast taiga, the boreal coniferous forests which run across the continent. Liquid water is unavailable for much of the winter, and plants and many of the animals ungergo a winter dormancy in which metabolism is very slow. South of the taiga are a belt of temperate broadleaf and mixed forests and temperate coniferous forests. This vast region is characterized by many shared plant and animal species. Some characteristic mammals are Siberian Roe Deer, Gray Wolf, Mooseand Wolverine. Mediterranean Basin[edit source | editbeta]

The lands bordering the Mediterranean Sea in s western Asia are home to the Mediterranean basin ecoregions, which together constitute world's largest and most diverse mediterranean climate region of the world, with generally mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers. The Mediterranean basin's mosaic of Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub are home to 13,000 endemic species. The Mediterranean basin is also one of the world's most endangered biogeographic regions; only 4% of the region's original vegetation remains, and human activities, including overgrazing, deforestation, and conversion of lands for pasture, agriculture, or urbanization, have degraded much of the region. Conservation International has designated the Mediterranean basin as one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. Middle-East deserts[edit source | editbeta]

A great belt of deserts, including the Arabian desert, separates the Palearctic, Afrotropic and true Asian ecoregions. This scheme includes these desert ecoregions in the palearctic ecozone; other biogeographers identify the ecozone boundary as the transition zone between the desert ecoregions and the Mediterranean basin ecoregions to the north, which places the deserts in the Afrotropic, while others...
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