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Topic: Asia, A Geographical Study

By:Manahil Fayaz

Asia is the Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.8% of the Earth's total surface area and comprises 30% of its land area, and has the largest coastline, at 62,800 kilometres (39,022 mi). Asia is generally defined as comprising the eastern four-fifths of Eurasia. Asia is subdivided into 48 countries, two of them (Russia and Turkey) having part of their land in Europe. With approximately 4.427 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population. Like most of the world, Asia has a high growth rate in the modern era. For instance, during the 20th century, Asia's population nearly quadrupled, as did the world population. The boundaries of Asia are culturally determined, as there is no clear geographical separation between it and Europe, which together form one continuous landmass called Eurasia. The most commonly accepted boundaries place Asia to the east of the Suez Canal, the Ural River, and the Ural Mountains, and south of the Caucasus Mountains (or the Kuma–Manych Depression) and the Caspian and Black Seas. It is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the south by the Indian Ocean and on the north by the Arctic Ocean. Given its size and diversity, the concept of Asia – a name dating back to classical antiquity - may actually have more to do with human geography than physical geography. Asia varies greatly across and within its regions with regard to ethnic groups, cultures, environments, economics, historical ties and government systems.

Climate Zones of Asia
The Climate of Asia is wet across southeast sections and dry across much of the interior. Some of the largest daily temperature ranges on Earth occur in western sections of Asia. The monsoon circulation dominates across southern and eastern sections, due to the presence of the Himalayas forcing the formation of a thermal low which draws in moisture during the summer. Southwestern sections of the continent are hot. Siberia is one of the coldest places in the Northern Hemisphere, and can act as a source of arctic air masses for North America. The most active place on Earth for tropical cyclone activity lies northeast of the Philippines and south of Japan, and the phase of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation modulates where in Asia landfall is more likely to occur. Asia’s huge size is one of the reasons why it has regions of a wide variety of climates; some of the coldest, hottest, wettest and some of the driest places on earth. These varied climates include the bitter cold of the polar north; the hot, dry desert environment of the center and southwest; and the hot, humid conditions of the tropical south. The temperature vary from over 100 degrees in some parts of Asia to below freezing in other parts. Monsoons winds influence much of Asian climate. In winter, monsoons from the north blow into East Asia and cause cold, dry weather. The wind changes direction in summer and blows from the seas that lie south and southeast of that region causing hot, humid weather. The great interior lands of Asia are far from the ocean. Winds from the oceans cut off by the high mountain chains which surround the interior. It has long and cold winters, cold winds from the polar regions, widespread summers with short and hot highlands and little rain except in the mountains has left much of the region as a desert. As the climate warms, many mountain glaciers are disappearing, permafrost is thawing, and the northern forests are moving further north. Rapid population growth and development in countries like China and India will put additional pressures on natural ecosystems and will lead to a rapid rise in the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere unless steps are taken to curtail emissions. Due to its great size and extensive area which it covers from North to South and from East...
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