human behaviour

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Human Behaviour Psychology
According to Sigmund Freud, (1856-1939), human beings are just mechanical creatures, whom he views as prisoners of primitive instincts and powers, which we can barely control. He states that our purpose is to control these instincts and powers. Freud explained these concepts by comparing the human spirit to an iceberg. The visible part of the iceberg (spirit) is the conscious part, which consists of everything we know and remember and the thinking processes through which we function.

The unconscious part is made up of everything we have ever learned or experienced, including that which has been "forgotten". A part of these forgotten things are really gone, but the largest part of the unconscious has just been shut out, because it would be annoying to be consciously reminded of it.

The influences of Helmholtz are also visible at other points. According to Freud, the material in the unconscious contains psychic energy. This psychic energy is constantly trying to get into the conscious part, while the conscious part keeps using energy to suppress undesirable discoveries. An expression of unknown powers is, for example, slips of the tongue. These expressions show that our unconscious was not strong enough to keep these powers outside the conscious part. Philosophers in the seventeenth and eighteenth century (like Descartes and Hobbes)

shared a mechanistic view. They thought that some of our actions are the result of internal or external forces, which are not under voluntary control. Hobbes, for example, claimed that underlying reasons for behavior are the avoidance of pain and the quest for pleasure. The extreme of the mechanistic view is the theory of instincts. An instinct is an innate biological force, which commands the organism to behave in a particular way. The main advocate of the instinct theory was the psychologist McDougall. He hypothesized that all thinking and behavior is the result of instincts, which are fixed...
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