Human Resource Development

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New Trends in Development and Human Resource Development in Developing Countries
Kazumi Yamamoto
Professor, Aichi University
Content
I

The Preface

II

The Changes in Development Thinking and Trends in Aid to Developing Countries

III The Economic Achievements of Developing Countries and Changes in Recent Years IV The Importance of Human Resource Development and New Needs in Changing Circumstances
V

The Conclusion: a Desirable Role for Japan and our Expectations of the IDEAS

Program
I

The Preface
Since IDEAS (IDE Advanced School) was established in 1990, we have witnessed

drastic changes in the world which have been affecting the development of developing countries.

Just after 1990, we saw the collapse of the Berlin Wall in 1989, followed by

the unification of West Germany and East Germany in 1990 and the dissolution of the former Soviet Union in 1991.

This was the end of the Cold War which had regulated

the world’s political economy for the long period following the Second World War. The end of the Cold War allowed many changes in the years which followed it. biggest change was the progress of globalization.

The

Globalization has been going on since

the beginning of the human history. The movements of people to new frontiers and the expansion of trade into remote areas can be said to be part of the process of globalization.

Over time the scope has expanded, the content has deepened, and the

speed has accelerated. The end of the Cold War led to the removal of constraints on the economic activities within both blocs, East and West, and to the greater integration of the world economy.

This was accelerated by technological innovation and an

information and communication revolution resulting from the peaceful utilization of military technology.1
We also saw great changes in the aid flows from developed to developing countries around this time.

First, East European countries shifted their political and economic

1

systems from socialist and planned to democratic and market economic systems, and DAC member countries started to provide these countries with ODA (Official Development Assistance).

Second, Asian socialist countries such as China, Vietnam

and Laos started to adopt the market economic system and to receive aid from developed countries. Third, aid donors started to shift their emphasis to global issues such as poverty alleviation and global warming.

Ten years after the end of the Cold War, we saw the September 11 incident in 2001 which changed the subsequent world drastically again.

This led to the Afghanistan

and Iraq wars, and since then the war on terror has been given top priority.

This war

is not a conventional war between countries, but rather a war against invisible terrorist groups.

The international community is under constant threat from them.

The

concept of human security has emerged.
On the one hand, Japan which had formerly been the world’s largest donor suffered a long economic stagnation after the collapse of the bubble economy from the early 1990s, which has been described as the lost 10-15 years.

Reflecting the economic

decline, Japan’s aid to developing countries declined and ranked fifth in 2008.

This

fact called for the review of Japanese aid policy and the effectiveness of aid. On the other hand, there are noticeable changes on the side of developing economies. First, we can point out a spectacular rise of the Chinese economy.

The

Chinese economy has recorded approximately 10% average annual growth rates over the past three decades.

China became the third largest economy in 2008 and is

forecasted to overtake Japan in 2010 and to become the second largest economy after the United States.

Second, other populous countries such as India, Brazil and Russia

(BRIC countries) are following China’s rise.

The other developing countries are also

joining the growth competition...
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