Integrating Science and Mathematics Education: Historical Analysis was a very informative article which addressed the historical background for the integration of science and mathematics teaching and learning. In this article the authors presented the increased need for improved teacher preparation, a greater emphasis being placed on integration at the secondary level, and finally, the fact that more research grounded in these theoretical models is need in the 21st century.

As a result of the national education reform, many national professional associations and technology education associations have united in their support of the integration of mathematics and science instruction and learning. As cited by Berlin and Lee (2005), “The science program should be coordinated with the mathematics program to enhance student use and understanding of mathematics in the study of science and to improve student understanding of mathematics.” It is believed that there is a symbiotic relationship between mathematics and science, resulting in both being learned through content and process. Berlin and Lee created two volume--(Berlin, 1991) and (Berlin & Lee, 2003)--containing the bibliography of integrated science and mathematics teaching and learning literature. In their historical analysis of the categorical integration literature from 1990-2001 compared to 1901-1989, it was found that scientific concepts/processes and mathematical concepts/skills have remained the same from 1901 until 2001. However, Berlin and Lee (2005) noted that there was a noticeable increase in the number of integrated of science and mathematics instructional documents between the years of 1993 and 1994, and during 1990-2001 there was an increase in documents designed for the integration of these two disciplines and which related to teaching education programs for new and veteran teachers (p. 6). Through careful analysis of the background of the integration of mathematics and science teaching and learning literature, it was found that frameworks have been developed as a result of standards-based documents. These frameworks have also found increased support from state mandated high stakes testing which are aligned to the standards-based documents. Such changes have resulted in changes being made to teacher licensure and preparation programs in an effort to better equip teachers in the integration of mathematics of mathematics and science. Secondly, a greater emphasis has been placed on integration at the secondary level in addition to the elementary and middles school levels. It is believed that integration at this level would be beneficial because it would assist students in further development of their problem-solving skills. Finally, Berlin and Lee (2005) stressed the need for more empirical research grounded in theoretical models in the 21st century (p. 9). Such information would be beneficial in gaining a better understanding of integrated science and mathematics teaching and learning. Second Article Reflection and Reaction

The second article, Integrating School Science and Mathematics: Fad or Folly? focused on the unique benefits that students and teachers experiences as a result of the integration of mathematics and science. Steen (n.d.) that the integration mathematics and science would be beneficial because “for mathematics, it would reinforce investigation exploration, and...