International Migration

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Brain drain 黑色字是下载的书上的,红色是stalker的 Definition
The brain drain has been as a problem for less-developed countries. Bhagwati and hamada and argued that educated and skilled immigrants take with them the education and training that was, at least part, paid for by people remaining in the source country.. In effect, capital-scarce developing countries were investing in human capital that was subsequently carried out of the country when educated people immigrated to high-income countries. Losses of skilled and semi-skilled blue collar workers can usually be made up relatively cheaply and quickly. A more serious problem for developing countries is the loss of more highly educated professional workers.

主要论点Brain drain is related to the schumpeterian growth model. 离开的原因 第一个是为了赚更多的钱
T he brain drain can be interpreted most simply using the “human capital” model. Workers who embody high levels of skill are seeking to maximize the return on this investment. 例子: the nurses who leave the philippines will often have invested large sums in their own tuition- up to $140..........投资很大在学费上。 1991年在菲律宾只能赚146美元一个月,但是在美国能赚2500一个月。 例子:the profession of nursing provides an interesting example that is often used to illustrate the negative effects of the brain drain on source countries. Qualified nurses form poor countries can raise their incomes many fold in high -income country Strong pull-factor in developed countries. The relative differences in wages between these countries and developed countries like the USA and those of the European Union remain very large 第二个原因: but not all professionals leave simply to earn more money. Many emigrate because there are simply no jobs available: developing countries are often producing many more trained people than their economies can absorb. 举例子(page119)

第三个原因: many educated people are also lost to developing countries because they travel abroad for education and do not return. But even countries with relatively well-developed university...
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