Islam and Women Harem Women

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Compare and contrast the Indian ocean (Swahili city-states), trans-Saharan (Sudanic states), and silk road trade routes. III. Kingdoms of the Grasslands
A. Introduction
1. Three coasts – Atlantic, Indian, savanna on edge of Sahara
2. Edge of desert
1. Gold found
2. Camels improved trade
a. Sahel – grassland belt – best place to live – centers of trade
3. African states emerge as trade intermediaries
4. Location makes them open to droughts and attack
5. 10th century Ghana rose to power through taxing salt, gold exchange B. Sudanic States
b. juula – traders
IV. The Swahili Coast of East Africa
3. Adjustment
a. Women
1. Many societies matrilineal
a. But…Sharia…Islamic law says it must be patrilineal
b. Many visitors shocked at African women’s equality
2. Impact of slavery – 4.8 > 7 million traded
a. Always existed, Muslims brought it to new heights
1. Muslims saw slavery as process in conversion
b. Used as servants, laborers, soldiers, administrators, eunuchs, concubines
1. Led to desire to enslave women and children
2. Children of slave mothers freed
a. Need for more slaves

B. The Coastal Trading Port
1. Founding – Bantu people from 1st century to 10th century
a. Even Indonesia and Malay in 2nd century- bananas/coconuts on Madagascar
b. Fishers, farmers made rough pottery & iron
2. 13th century – urbanized trading ports – at least 30 port towns
a. Shared Swahili language
b. Contained mosques, tombs, palaces cut of stone and coral
c. Exported ivory, gold, iron, slaves, exotic animals
d. Imported silks – Persia, porcelain – China
e. Sofala – beautiful coastal city, gold access, furthers south to catch monsoon
1. Riding the monsoon season key to trading in Indian Ocean]
f. link to coastal commerce and caravan trade
g. Chinese sailing expeditions – 1417 > 1431 – big boats – National Geographic

V. Peoples of the Forest and Plains
1....
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