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Development of Visitor Management Strategies Based on Visitors’ Leisure Lifestyle
- A Visitor Sample of Sun Moon Lake National Scenic Area, Taiwan Su-Hsin Lee Jing-Shoung Hou Chang-Chan Huang Wei-Chen Li
Visitors’ depreciative behavior can be seen quite often in outdoor recreation settings. Their improper behavior brings not merely negative effects on other visitors but also major maintenance issue to recreation resource management. Therefore, recreation resource management authorities have been trying to exercise effective strategies to prevent visitors’ misbehavior. Since the lifestyle that is composed of activity, interest and opinion has been proved to effectively depict the nature and activity patterns of consumers, it is hypothesized that the effect of the visitor management strategies is highly related to how visitors perceive these strategies and, therefore, depends on visitors’ leisure lifestyles. Accordingly, this study aims to explore the relationship between visitors’ leisure lifestyles and their perception of visitor management strategies. A visitor sample drawn from Sun Moon Lake National Scenic Area, Taiwan, was used to investigate the relationship and 406 valid questionnaires were obtained. A factor analysis followed by a cluster analysis was conducted to divide respondents into five categories of leisure lifestyles, which include the practical, serious, curious, non-active, and one-stop vacationing. Visitor management strategies were divided into four major categories based on previous literatures which include: direct/active, direct/passive, indirect /active, and indirect/passive management. The results showed a significant association between visitors’ leisure lifestyle and their perception of visitor management strategies. The management strategies of direct/ passive, indirect/active, and indirect/passive were more highly acceptable to the leisure lifestyle groups of curious and non-active than the rest of groups. Based on the findings in this research, some suggestions were provided for visitor management in National Scenic Areas.

Keywords: depreciative behavior, visitor management, leisure lifestyle Introduction
In the outdoor recreation environment, visitors’ inappropriate behaviors are easy observed, such as littering, making noise, illegal parking, and daubs. These actions are always problems for park managements, they are not only creating negative images to the visitors, but also serious maintaining barrels for the environments and facilities. Hence, the management authorities try to figure out effective visitor management strategies to decrease those depreciative behaviors.

Gilbert, Peterson, and Lime (1972) developed “direct and indirect management strategies.” Direct approaches include the imposition of fines, increased surveillance of the area, and limited usage; indirect approaches contain improved access to areas, improved campsites, and proof of ecological knowledge or recreational activity skills (Chavez, 1996). To conclude, direct strategies have emphasis on regulation of behavior while indirect strategies focus on influencing or modifying visitor behaviors (Hendee, Stankey, & Lucas, 1978). These two methods are employed by scholars, park managers, and other personnel (Hendricks, Ruddell, & Bullis, 1993; McAvoy & Dustin, 1983). No matter these strategies are discussed by which conceptions or theories, even the social psychological ideas, those empirical studies concentrate on the relationships between attitude and behaviors.

In fact, through understanding oneself/other’s opinions of depreciative behavior, decreasing the inappropriate behavior coping strategies, and employing users’ management strategies, can effectively control depreciative behaviors (Downing & Clark, 1976). Knopf and Dustin (1992) suggested to use informational and educational service (indirect approach) to manage careless destroy behaviors. Meanwhile, intentional violent behaviors should cope with...
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