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Literature review – PSYC7PRHY
Investigate the role of Psycap and Psych distress in academic procrastination in a sample of South African Students Investigate the role of PsyCap and Coping Mechanisms in Academic Procrastination in a Sample of South African Students Psychological Capital:

The formal definition of psychological capital is an individual’s positive psychological state that is characterized by 1) having confidence (self-efficacy) to take on and put in the necessary effort to succeed at challenging tasks; 2) make a positive attribution (optimism) about succeeding now and in the future; 3) persevering towards goals and when necessary, redirecting paths to goals (hope) in order to succeed; and 4) when beset by other problems and adversity, sustaining and bouncing back and even beyond (resilience) to attain success (Luthans, Youssef, & Avolio, 2007, p. 3). Right around the turn of the last century, (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000; Sheldon & King, 2001; Snyder & Lopez, 2002), the field of psychology began to place greater emphasis on examining what was right with people and what contributes to human flourishing and growth potential. The positive focus and approach that was emerging primarily in the area of clinical psychology was extended to the workplace. (Luthans, 2002a, 2002b; Luthans, Youssef, & Avolio, 2007; Nelson & Cooper, 2007; Wright, 2003). Psychological capital can be conceptualized as personal psychological capacities and resources. As such, psychological capital may serve to support and/or guide individuals in how they conceptualize life experiences.

Psychological capital is the positive psychological state during the process of individual growth and development including four aspects, namely self-efficacy, hope, resilience and optimism. People with high levels of psychological capital can work happily, be willing to sacrifice and have “a sense of Carrefour” to improve the quality of work. Together, these elements serve as an overarching personal characteristic and positively influence well-being.

Self-efficacy has considerable impact on performance outcomes (Sadri & Robertson, 1993; Stajkovic & Luthans, 1998a). With roots in Bandura’s (1997) social cognitive theory, efficacy has been defined as the individual’s conviction or confidence about his/her abilities to mobilize the motivation, cognitive resources or courses of action needed to successfully execute a specific task and/or context. Efficacy is a perception or belief about the process and results of applying one’s personal abilities. [REFERENCE]. According to Luthans & Youssef (2004), self-efficacy also commonly called confidence, is defined as believing in one’s ability to mobilize cognitive resources to obtain specific outcomes. Such beliefs are said to be the most important determinants of the behaviours people choose to engage in and how much they persevere in their efforts in the face of obstacles and challenges (Maddux, 2002, p.277).So in simpler terms, it can be deduced that the benefit self-efficacy and confidence offers an individual is not any particular advantageous cognitive process, but rather a certain openness to challenge and a willingness to expend effort in the pursuit of a successful result. Self-efficacy is the most popular psychological variable used in educational setting and has a strong research and theory supporting its effect on academic achievement (Bandura, 1998).

In formulating his hope theory, Snyder began with the assumption that people are generally goal oriented, that is people behave in such a way that they are trying to accomplish something. Snyder determined there are two components comprising hope: agency (willpower) and pathways (Snyder, 2000; Snyder, Rand & Sigman, 2002). The psychological capital describes hope as “having the willpower and pathways to obtain one’s goals” (Luthans & Youssef, 2004, p.152). Agency...
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