Notes of 23 24

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Chapters 23 and 24 - The Late 19th Century and the Drive for Empire

1. Effects of Industrialization on…
the economy
The industrial revolution played a role in the emergence of the basic economic patterns that have characterized much of modern European economic life. Some historians characterize the period before 1895 and after 1873 as a great depression. Europeans experienced a series of economic crises during these years (Prices of agriculture produces fell). Slumps reduced profits in the business cycle. Although recession occurred at different times from 1895 to world war 2, Europe experienced an economic boom and got a prosperity level that encouraged people to look back at the era as la belle époque (the golden age in civilization ) specific countries

/zones
- Germany: replaced Great Britain as the industrial leader of Europe. Germany gained superiority in new areas of manufacturing (organic chemicals, electronic equipment). Britain had an established industrial plant and made it more difficult to shift to the new techniques of Industrial Revolution. The relationship between science and technology became closer. Germany was accustomed to change. - European economic zones: Europe was divided into two economic zones. The growth led to new patterns for European agriculture that emerged. It included an abundance of grain and lower transportation costs caused the prices of farm commodities plummeting . Southern Italy, Austria-hungary ,Spain=little industrialized the urban

environment

- Urban dwellers make up an increasing percentage of the European Population. - There were 40% in Britain, 25% in France and Germany, 10% in Eastern Europe. Then after the industrial revolution, the population increased to 80% in Britain, 45% in F, 6% in germany, and 30% in Weastern Europe. There were also many inventions and innovations that occurred in this time period -Electricity- 1910. Hydro electric power stratons-coal fired steam plants. The electric railway was in 1879. Desire to own sewing machines, clocks, type writers, etc. New consumer ethic. Mass marketing encourtages people to purchase new consumer goods. Introduction of chemical fertilizers. Workers were of people who abandoned farms because of hardships. Wanted cheaper labor. Ideologu of domesticity: Women should remain at home to bear and nuture children. This is said to keep the well being of familyand forced women to do marginal work at home. The urban and industrial lead was passed from Britain to Germany. demographics/

population patterns

Dramatic population increases after 1870. Prices of food and manufactured goods declined. There were also lower transportation costs. The period of the depression was from 1873-1895. This period was composed of a series of European economic crises. There was an abundance of grain: Tarrif barries; machines for harvesting In 1850-1910, THe population grew to 460 million. There was a rising birthrate and also a decline in deathrate Emigration: Excess rural labor migrates to industrial regions. Emigration is about 500 thousand a year. There was improved nutrition because food was transported to poor harvest regions. 2. Social Changes Due to Industrialization

Work/School
Play/Leisure
Mass Society

Upper Class
This elite was composed of people with the jobs of aristocrats, bankers, merchants, and industrialists. There were elites schools dominated by the children of the aristocracy. The educated elite got leadership roles in government and military. There were pleasures of country living and the aristocrats bought lavish town houses for part-time urban life. Common bonds were made when the sons of wealth families met during school or other meetings. The aristocrats and the plutocrats fused together to one class. The mass education was a product of mass society. To be educated, one had to attend a secondary school or university. European states showed little interest in primary education. Only in the German...
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