Six Steps To Effective Handwashing

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Six steps to effective handwashing

Step 1
Wet hands and apply soap.  Rub palms together until soap is bubbly. 

Step 2
Rub each palm over the back of the other hand.

Step 3
Rub between your fingers on each hand.

Step 4
Rub your hands with the fingers together.

Step 5
Rub around each of your thumbs.

Step 6
Rub in circles on your palms. Then rinse and dry your hands

4-9. REASONS FOR CHANGING THE POSITION OF A PATIENT
The following are reasons for changing a patient's position. 1. To promote comfort and relaxation.
2. To restore body function.
Changing positions improves gastrointestinal function.
It also improves respiratory function.
Changing positions allows for greater lung expansion.
It relieves pressure on the diaphragm.
3. To prevent deformities.
When one lies in bed for long periods of time, muscles become atonic and atrophy. Prevention of deformities will allow the patient to ambulate when his activity level is advanced. 4. To relieve pressure and prevent strain (which lead to the formation of decubiti). 5. To stimulate circulation.

6. To give treatments (that is), range of motion exercises). 4-10. BASIC PRINCIPLES IN POSITIONING OF PATIENTS
1. Maintain good patient body alignment. Think of the patient in bed as though he were standing. 2. Maintain the patient's safety.
3. Reassure the patient to promote comfort and cooperation.
4. Properly handle the patient's body to prevent pain or injury. 5. Keep in mind proper body mechanics for the practical nurse. 6. Obtain assistance, if needed, to move heavy or helpless patients. 7. Follow specific physician's orders. A physician's order, such as one of the following, is needed for the patient to be out of bed. "Up ad lib."

"Up as desired."
"OOB" (out of bed).
8. Do not use special devices (that is., splints, traction) unless ordered. Ask if you do not know what is allowed. Different types of medicine
There are many different types of medicines available to us today, some of which cure diseases while others make us feel better and able to carry on with our lives. They include: Medicines which destroy infectious organisms, e.g. antibiotics. Medicines which relieve symptoms but do not destroy pathogens, e.g. different kinds of pain killers such as ibuprofen, paracetamol. Medicines which destroy cancer cells. Anticancer medicines are often given in combination, e.g. mitomycin, ifosfamide and cisplatin (MIC). Medicines which change the chemistry of the blood eg statins which help reduce cholesterol levels. Medicines which replace missing chemicals in the blood, e.g. insulin. Personalised medicines are medicines which are prescribed using information from studies of the human genome to identify the best medicine to use for a particular genotype. Particular groups of people, or particular types of cancers, will be given specific drugs. Medicine will be stratified so that everyone gets the medicine which will works best for them based on genetic information rather than trial and error. Not only will this mean people are treated more successfully but also the risk of unpleasant side effects will be kept to a minimum.
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