Socialism Noora 9E

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Philosophy

Political Ideologies:
Socialism
Karl Marx- Known as the
father of 20th century
communism

Noora, 9E
Robert Owen- co
founder of socialism

Preview
Socialism is a term derived from the Latin word ‘socriare’. It means to combine or share. The earliest known socialist pioneers are Robert Owen, from Britain and Saint Simon from France (intellectual property has spanned from as earliest as Plato’s Republic [1516]). By the 1830’s these two referred to their ideologies as ‘socialism’ in their respective country’s and in the 1840’s the term became familiar throughout industrialized countries.

Socialism has traditionally been thought as an opposition to capitalism and provides a humane and socially worthwhile alternative. At the core of this ideology comes the prospect of all humans being united by their common humanity and highlights the extent of which people develop their individual personalities by their social interactions.

The defining value of socialism is equality. Socialists believe that communal equivalence is vital in social solidity and unity. It promotes freedom, in a materialistic and personal sense.

Saint Simon
of France

Core themes: no individual is an
island
Even though as an ideology socialism is divided into many subsectors at the core it should have the following attributes:
•Community
•Cooperation
•Equality
•Common ownership

Community:
At its heart socialism offers a unifying vision of humans as social beings, whom are capable of solving social and economic mishaps by harnessing powers of the community as opposed to individual effort. It stresses the capacity of collective action and pursuing goals by working together, as opposed to striving for self-interest. To embody this you can refer to a the following metaphysical poem by John Donne (1571-1631):

No man is an Island of itself;
Every man is a piece of a Continent, a part of the main;...
Any man’s death diminishes me, because I am involved in Mankind; and
Therefore never send to know for whom the bell tolls;
It tolls for thee.

Cooperation:
In relation to humans being social, it would only be practical if the natural relationship between them cooperative rather than competitive.
•Socialists believe that competition pit individuals against each other, encouraging them to deny or ignore their social nature rather than embrace it. Thus, competition fosters only a sparse range of social attributes and instead promotes selfishness and aggression. Contrastingly, cooperation makes moral and economic sense. •Cooperation embraces sympathy, caring and affection. Russian anarchist Peter Kropotkin suggested that the principal reason humans have survived this long is because of their capacity for ‘mutual aid’. Moral incentives over material ones. •Socialist commitment to cooperation has stimulated the growth of cooperative enterprises, replacing the competitive based hierarch businesses proliferated by capitalism.

Socialist party
of Americalogo of
cooperation
and equality.

• The aspect of equality is definitely the defining feature of socialism. Equality is the political value that most distinguishes this ideology from its rivals, namely liberalism and conservatism. Socialism is characterized by the belief of social equality and equality of an outcome. Socialist have created at least three arguments in favour of equality. Firstly, social equality retains justice and fairness. • Secondly, social equality underpins community and cooperation. • Thirdly, socialists support this value because equality holds the key to one’s satisfaction and fulfillment.

Although equality is the significant virtue of socialism, different sectors have different beliefs towards the extent of seriousness towards it. Communists (or Marxists) for example, believe that there should be an absolute classless society, this is achieved by the demolishing of private property, and the collection of productive wealth.

On the other side of...
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