Week 1 Practice Problems

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Week One Practice Problems

Prepare a written response to the following questions.

Chapter 1

12. Explain and give an example for each of the following types of variables:

a. Equal interval: A variable in which the values are approximate amounts. An example would be a GPA average.

b. Rank-order: A variable that is determined in ranks or order. An example would be where a graduate stands among other classmates.

c. Nominal: Values that are determined in categories as opposed to numeric value. Gender, Race, or Ethnicity are considered nominal values.

d. Ratio scale: A value is measured on a ratio scale if 0 is a possible factor. A pain chart given in a hospital is a ratio scale. When asked how bad the patient’s pain is, it is measured on a scale from 0-10.

e. Continuous: Variables that have infinite numbers between the two. An example can be found in the question, “How old are you?” There are many different possibilities, therefore, it is a continuous variable.

f. Discrete: Variables with specific values. They cannot have values between the specific values. An example would be found in the question, “How many children do you have?” You can have 1 child, 2, or 3 children, but cannot have 3.5 kids.

15. Following are the speeds of 40 cars clocked by radar on a particular road in a 35-mph zone on a particular afternoon:

30, 36, 42, 36, 30, 52, 36, 34, 36, 33, 30, 32, 35, 32, 37, 34, 36, 31, 35, 20 24, 46, 23, 31, 32, 45, 34, 37, 28, 40, 34, 38, 40, 52, 31, 33, 15, 27, 36, 40

Make a frequency table and a histogram, then describe the general shape of the distribution.

Frequency Table
Speed of Cars
Number of Cars
Percentage
36
5
13.89%
34
4
11.76%
30
3
10.00%
31
3
9.68%
32
3
9.38%
40
3
7.50%
33
2
6.06%
35
2
5.71%
37
2
5.41%
52
2
3.85%
15
1
6.67%
20
1
5.00%
23
1
4.35%
24
1
4.17%
27
1
3.70%
28
1
3.57%
38
1
2.63%
42
1
2.38%
45
1
2.22%
46
1
2.17%

21. Raskauskas and Stoltz (2007) asked a group of 84 adolescents about their involvement in traditional and electronic bullying. The researchers defined electronic bullying as “…a means of bullying in which peers use electronics {such as text messages, emails, and defaming Web sites} to taunt, threaten, harass, and/or intimidate a peer” (p.565). The table below is a frequency table showing the adolescents’ reported incidence of being victims or perpetrators or traditional and electronic bullying.

a. Using this table as an example, explain the idea of a frequency table to a person who has never had a course in statistics. The first column in this chart will identify the methods in which people use to bully others.This is a nominal value. The “N” will reflect the number of people bullied in that manner, while the percentage will show the total percentage of people bullied using each category type.

b. Explain the general meaning of the pattern of results.
This chart shows that the typical types of bullying are the most frequent, while electronic methods are rising. The correlation between the victims and the bullies indicates that there are more victims to bullying than there are bullies.

Incidence of Traditional and Electronic Bullying and Victimization (N=84) Forms of Bullying
N
%
Electronic victims
41
48.8
 
Text-message victim
27
32.1
 
Internet victim (websites, chatrooms)
13
15.5
 
Picture-phone victim
8
9.5
Traditional Victims
60
71.4
 
Physical victim
38
45.2
 
Teasing victim
50
59.5
 
Rumors victim
32
38.6
 
Exclusion victim
30
50
Electronic Bullies
18
21.4
 
Text-message bully
18
21.4
 
Internet bully
11
13.1
Traditional Bullies
5
64.3
 
Physical bully
29
34.5
 
Teasing bully
38
45.2
 
Rumor bully
22
26.2
 
Exclusion bully
35
41.7

22. Kärnä and colleagues (2013)...
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