Mathematics is defined as the science which deals with logic of shape, quantity and arrangement. During ancient times in Egypt, the Egyptians used maths and complex mathematic equations like geometry and algebra. That is how they managed to build the pyramids. Our day today life would be quite strenuous without maths knowledge. There are many ways in which people use maths during the day today living. Below are some ways in which people use maths in daily lives. * Daily life would be very difficult without maths’ knowledge at all. To begin with, you need to be able to organize and count your money; as well as subtract, divide and multiply. This is a skill everyone needs to have in order to survive. Every day we visit supermarkets to buy items, without maths knowledge, we would not be able to know if we have been given the right change. * Some DIY jobs require basic maths knowledge for them to be done effectively. For example, a person needs to work out the amount of materials required in order to decorate a house. One has to be aware of the measurement, space and shape of the area he is working on to ensure that he or she has purchased the required amount of materials. This helps in ensuring that you do not run out of essential materials before the job is finished or you do not have too much left over. * In the field of architecture or engineering, it is essential to have more advance maths knowledge. Working on geometry and algebra helps in reasoning skills and assist later in life to solve technical problems. Several other jobs also require workers to apply maths, such as building and construction, scientist, plumber, electrician, accountant and even rally drivers. * People use math every day. You use math whenever money, time, weight, height, calories or distance are involved for starters. * Jobs which do not use maths every day still require some basic knowledge of mathematics to complete certain tasks. Some people might be against this , but...

...The evolution of mathematics might be seen as an ever-increasing series of abstractions, or alternatively an expansion of subject matter. The first abstraction, which is shared by many animals,[19] was probably that of numbers: the realization that a collection of two apples and a collection of two oranges (for example) have something in common, namely quantity of their members.Evidenced by tallies found on bone, in addition to recognizing how to count physical objects, prehistoric peoples may have also recognized how to count abstract quantities, like time – days, seasons, years.[20]
More complex mathematics did not appear until around 3000 BC, when the Babylonians and Egyptians began using arithmetic, algebra and geometry for taxation and other financial calculations, for building and construction, and for astronomy.[21] The earliest uses of mathematics were in trading, land measurement, painting and weaving patterns and the recording of time.
In Babylonian mathematics elementary arithmetic (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division) first appears in the archaeological record. Numeracy pre-dated writing and numeral systems have been many and diverse, with the first known written numerals created by Egyptians in Middle Kingdom texts such as the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus.[citation needed]
Between 600 and 300 BC the Ancient Greeks began a systematic study of mathematics in its own right...

...History of mathematics
A proof from Euclid's Elements, widely considered the most influential textbook of all time.[1]
The area of study known as the history of mathematics is primarily an investigation into the origin of discoveries in mathematics and, to a lesser extent, an investigation into the mathematical methods and notation of the past.
Before the modern age and the worldwide spread of knowledge, written examples of new mathematical developments have come to light only in a few locales. The most ancient mathematical texts available arePlimpton 322 (Babylonian mathematics c. 1900 BC),[2] the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus (Egyptian mathematics c. 2000-1800 BC)[3] and the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus (Egyptian mathematics c. 1890 BC). All of these texts concern the so-calledPythagorean theorem, which seems to be the most ancient and widespread mathematical development after basic arithmetic and geometry.
The study of mathematics as a subject in its own right begins in the 6th century BC with the Pythagoreans, who coined the term "mathematics" from the ancient Greekμάθημα (mathema), meaning "subject of instruction".[4]Greek mathematics greatly refined the methods (especially through the introduction of deductive reasoning andmathematical rigor in proofs) and expanded the subject matter of mathematics.[5] Chinese...

...HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS
The history of mathematics is nearly as old as humanity itself. Since antiquity, mathematics has been fundamental to advances in science, engineering, and philosophy. It has evolved from simple counting, measurement and calculation, and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects, through the application of abstraction, imagination and logic, to the broad, complex and often abstract discipline we know today.
From the notched bones of early man to the mathematical advances brought about by settled agriculture in Mesopotamia and Egypt and the revolutionary developments of ancient Greece and its Hellenistic empire, the story of mathematics is a long and impressive one.
Prehistoric Mathematics
The oldest known possibly mathematical object is the Lebombo bone, discovered in the Lebombo mountains of Swaziland and dated to approximately 35,000 BC. It consists of 29 distinct notches cut into a baboon's fibula. Also prehistoric artifacts discovered in Africa and France, dated between 35,000 and 20,000 years old, suggest early attempts to quantify time.
The Ishango bone, found near the headwaters of the Nile river (northeastern Congo), may be as much as 20,000 years old and consists of a series of tally marks carved in three columns running the length of the bone. Common interpretations are that the Ishango bone shows either the earliest known...

...REFLECTIVE JOURNAL OF HANDOUT 1 ; WHAT IS THE PHILOSOPHY OF MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
According to the journal that written by Paul Ernest from University of Exeter that discuss mainly about the philosophy of Mathematics Education. After the presentation that had conducted by my friends about the topic and had been clarified by our lecturer my understanding about the philosophy in overall and specifically the philosophy inmathematics education. As reported by Paul Ernest in particular the philosophy is about systematic analysis and the critical examination of fundamental problems. He also reported that it involves the exercise of the mind and intellect that discover thought, inquiry, reasoning, and it’s the results, judgement, conclusions, and belief or beliefs. In the other statement he also mentioned that the philosophy is an area or activity that can be understood as its aims and rationale.
While the mathematics education is the activity or practice of teaching mathematics. Hence the philosophy of mathematics education that had been highlighted in this journal concern the aim or rationale behind the teaching of mathematics. As had been discussed in this journal the philosophy overall, the philosophy of mathematics and philosophy of Education have simply substantial entities in themselves but complex relationships and interactions between...

...researchers would like to address. Moreover, the objectives of the study were also given in order to provide a clear idea of what the paper is all about. The idea was further supported by background concepts regarding the definition of equality and equivalence and how is it important in solving Algebraic Equations.
The understanding or perception of students regarding equality was limited into 4 different categories: operational, relational, other alternative or no knowledge at all. These understandings are known to interfere with the ability of the student to solve and analyze linear equations. We classify someone’s understanding as operational if he thinks that the equal sign serves as a signal for the answer. It is classified as relational if the student perceives equal sign as equivalence or the two quantities are equal. As for the remaining two, we distinguish it as alternative if the student just translates directly the equal sign and no knowledge if he/she doesn't have any idea.
On the other hand, the students’ skills are classified into two categories namely Procedural Knowledge and Conceptual Knowledge. Procedural pertains to the automatic response which is brought by the student’s mastery in the procedures or rules in solving. However, the concepts behind the procedures are not fully understood by the students. We call it conceptual if the student knows what they are doing and can make connections out of it.
Using these...

...mother of Europe's languages. India was the mother of our philosophy, of much of our mathematics, of the ideals embodied in Christianity... of self-government and democracy. In many ways, Mother India is the mother of us all."
- Will Durant, American Historian 1885-1981
Mathematics is an important field of study. Mathematics is essential as it helps in developing lots of realistic skills, in fact study of mathematics itself include the concepts related to the routine lives of human. It not only develops mathematical skills and concepts, it also helps in developing the attitudes, interest, and appreciation and provides opportunities to develop one’s own thinking. So, mathematics is undoubtedly a discipline which is imperative to know and study. Figure 1 clearly specifies all the skills that are developed by the mathematics. Mathematics starts from simple things and linear thinking that lead towards the more complex things and higher order thinking skills. Mathematics has taken centuries to develop in its present form and that’s why it will be really fruitful to know about its development.
Fig. 1, Importance of MathematicsC:\Users\naveen\Desktop\Untitled.png
Mathematics has played a very significant role in the progress and expansion of Indian culture for centuries. Mathematical ideas that originated in the Indian subcontinent have had a...

...INTRODUCTION
As the greatest Mathematician “GAUSS” has said –“MATHS IS THE QUEEN OF SCIENCE”, maths is truly the guiding force of human soul. Maths is the purest form of study of nature which comprise of a deep and rational comparison of quantities, structures, spaces, nature of change of different inter-relations and much more. Mathematicians seek out various patterns and formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians counter examines the facts by repeated and repeated logical transformations these experiments may take years and years of thorough research and dedication.
USE OF MATHS IN EVERY DAY LIFE
“I love those who love geometry”-said Plato, the famous Greek philosopher and thinker.Algebra, Arithmetic, Geometry are three major components of maths. Algebra is study of symbols, Arithmetic deals with numbers and geometry plays with figures. The structure of any railway bridge is supported with triangular shaped support system(geometry),saving is vital for ones peaceful oldage (arithmetic),the combinations of different dresses one should wear so that no continues days has same pattern(algebra),all these are nothing but some simple yet important usage of maths in ones daily life.
Where to go for shopping, choosing a shampoo or planning a holiday, all these things of our daily routine has something in common-its maths. Numerical and logical thinking plays a vital part in each of these every day activities. A good understanding of maths is essential for making sense of all...

...Mathematics of the Greeks and the Mayans
Mathematics is the study of time, space, structure, and quantity which is used to calculate almost anything in the world from the amount of atoms in an element to calculating the air pressure in a room. Although levels of math such as calculus are not taught until college, the use and study of mathematics have been around since the beginning of time and the world wouldn’t be able to function without it. The term “mathematics” comes from the Greek word mathema which means study, knowledge, or learning. Along with philosophy and astronomy, the ancient Greeks were well known for their development and contribution as brilliant mathematicians. Despite their widely spread fame as the world’s first greatest mathematicians, the Greeks had competitors. My contention is that the Mayans were one of the top mathematicians of the ancient world and were even more advanced than the Greeks.
Ancient Greek mathematics has been developed since the early seventh century B.C. which could also be called the period during the Hellenistic Mathematics. Some of the greatest Ancient Greek mathematicians were Pythagoras, Aristotle, Anaxagoras, Euclid, Archimedes, Thales, and Aristarchus. These Greek mathematicians were big on the development of geometry which is a subdivision of math that focuses on shapes, size, and the relativity of space. Although their number system was...